Generator Basic Principle & Components

 Generators convert mechanical power to electrical power
  Generators produce electrical power based on the principle of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction. This law states that when a conductor moves in a magnetic field it cuts magnetic lines of force, which induces an electromagnetic force (EMF) in the conductor. The magnitude of this induced EMF depends upon the rate of change of flux (magnetic line force) linkage with the conductor. This EMF will cause a current to flow if the conductor circuit is closed.

Mechanically a generator consists of a rotating part and a stationary part:
Rotor: The rotating part of the generator
Stator: The stationary part of  the generator, which surrounds the rotor.
     One of these parts generates a magnetic field, the other has a wire winding in which the changing field induces an electric current:

Field winding or field (permanent) magnets
       The magnetic field producing component of the generator. The magnetic field of the dynamo or alternator can be provided by either wire windings called field coils or permanent magnets. Electrically-excited generators include an excitation system to produce the field flux. A generator using permanent magnets (PMs) is sometimes called a magneto, or permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSMs).
       The power-producing component of an electrical machine. In a generator, alternator, or dynamo, the armature windings generate the electric current, which provides power to an external circuit. The armature can be on either the rotor or the stator, depending on the design, with the field coil or magnet on the other part.
There are two types of Generators 
> AC generators
> DC generators

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