Diference between P Alkalinity T Alkalinity and M Alkalinity

In this article you can read Difference between p alkalinity t alkalinity and m alkalinity in simple words

> Alkalinities are classified accordion to the endpoint of the titration with acid
>There are three species of alkalinity; bicarbonate, carbonate and hydroxide. The concentration of each species will vary with pH. 

>Total alkalinity or T alkalinity is the measurement of all species of alkalinity in the water.
     > It is the final endpoint for the alkalinity titration. 
    >The concentration of each of the three species can be determined by titrating a water sample with acid of a known concentration and using chemical indicators, phenolphthalein (P indicator),methyl orange (M indicator), or a pH meter to determine "endpoints". The chemical indicators change color at a certain pH points(the endpoint). 

>M alkalinity is same as total alkalinity. Here, “M” refers to the pH indicator methyl orange (endpoint of about 4.2 to 4.5)

>P alkalinity or Phenolphthalein alkalinity is the measurement of amount carbonate and hydroxide using titrating water sample with acid of a known concentration and using Phenolphthalein indicator.
 >Here, “P” refers to the pH indicator Phenolphthalein indicator
 >P-alkalinity is measured down to a pH of 8.3.  

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  1. Why T alkalinity must be less than twice of p alkalinity,what will happen if more .And your above information was helpful
    Thank you waiting for your response

  2. Which alkalinity is harmful P or M?

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