Types Of Fire Extinguishers On Ship, Working, Solas Regulations, Maintenance

           Fire extinguishers used in on board ships  are mainly classified into fixed fire fighting extinguishers and portable fire extinguishers. In this article we will discuss about portable fire extinguishers.Portable fire fighter is one of the most convenient and speedy way to fight fire on ships.
          Must Read: >Fire Fighting Appliances On Board Ship 

Solas Regulations Of Portable Fire Extinguishers


>Portable fire extinguishers should be ready to use and easily visible with recommended  color cording.  

>Accommodation, service space and control station shall be provided with portable fire extinguishers of appropriate type and sufficient numbers
>Co2 fire extinguishers are not used in accommodation 
>Ships 1000 GT and above have at least 5 portable fire extinguishers
> The weight of the portable fire fighting equipment need not be more then the 23 Kg 


Water Type Portable Fire extinguishers

>Use-------------------------Class A Fire
>Working principle---------Cooling effect
>Safety---------------------Safety pin and relief hole
>Duration of working------6 meter jet length for 60sec
>Contain-------------------Co2 74mg@36bar pressure water 9Ltr min(vary as per weight and capacity)
>Body-----------------------Solid drawn steel and internally zinc coated 

Working

    Water extinguishes the fire by cooling it.Water is a very important extinguishing agent on board. It is cheap and easily available in large quantities. The water extinguishers having an outer container filled with water and Inner container(Co2 cartridge)filled with pressurized CO2. When the plunger pierce into the co2 cartridge, which forces the water out of the container with pressure.
Procedure to Use

    >Identify the fire (Class A)
    >Carry extinguisher nearby the fire
    >Keep Extinguisher towards the fire
    >Remove the safety pin and strike the plunger to pierce the co2 cartridge
    >Extinguish the fire   

Maintenance 



Weekly
Monthly
Yearly
>Check nozzle
>check relief hole
>Check safety pin in position
>Check exterior for crack or any damage and clean it
>Check the label are on place
>Check plunger
>check spring
>check gas cartridge
>Check internal
>Weighing the cylinder

>pressure test at 35 bar befor recharging




Mechanical Foam Type Portable Fire extinguishers

>Use-------------------------Class A,B Fire (oil,paint)
>Working principle--------Smoothering effect
>Safety----------------------Safety pin and relief hole
>Duration of working------6 meter jet length for 60sec
>Contain-------------------Co2 74mg@36bar pressure and(vary as per weight and capacity)
           Aqueous Film-Forming Foam (AFFF) 97% and water 3%
>Body-----------------------Solid drawn steel and internally zinc coated.

Working

    Mechanical Foam extinguishers are extinguish the fire by removing/cutting off the oxygen. CO2 gas is used for pushing water out of the cylinder. The pressure inside it is around 10 bars and it is enough to expel water and foam mixture out of the equipment with great force.

Procedure to Use
    >Identify the fire (Class A or B)
    >Carry extinguisher nearby the fire
    >Keep Extinguisher towards the fire
    >Remove the safety pin and strike the plunger to pierce the co2 cartridge
    >Do not allow foam to strike on the surface of burning liquid
    >direct the form to vertical walls so that foam runs down side and blanket the liquid.
    >Extinguish the fire   

Maintenance 


Weekly
Monthly
Yearly
>Check nozzle
>check relief hole
>Check safety pin in position
>Check exterior for crack or any damage and clean it
>Check the label are on place
>Check plunger
>check spring
>check gas cartridge
>Check internal
>Weighing the cylinder

>pressure test at 35 bar before recharging




Co2 Type Portable Fire extinguishers

>Use-------------------------oil, electrical, gaseous substances,type B
>Working principle--------Smoothering effect
>Safety----------------------Safety pin, control valve or safety valve and pressure relief device
>Duration of working------3-4 meter jet length for 20sec
>Contain-------------------Co2 4.5Kg@53bar pressure and(vary as per weight and capacity)
>Body-----------------------Solid drawn steel and internally zinc coated. Discharge hose non conductive.

      This fire extinguisher used the inhibition method to stop the fire. They are always marked in ‘Black’ and this provides distinction to them. They are usually used in the galley, Bridge and engine roam spaces.  


Procedure to Use

    >Identify the fire (Class B)
    >Carry extinguisher nearby the fire
    >Keep Extinguisher towards the fire
    >Remove the safety pin direct the hose at the base of the fire
    >If the fire is on electrical equipment switch-off current
    >Careful of direction of wind


Weekly
Monthly
Yearly
>Check hose outlet and clean
>Check safety pin in position
>Check exterior for crack or any damage and clean it
>Check the label are on place
>Weighing the cylinder if 10% less, send to shore

>pressure test at 210 kg/cm2 before recharging



Dry Chemical Powder Type Fire Extinguishers

>Use-------------------------Class A,B,C,D And Electricale
>Working principle--------Smoothering effect
>Safety----------------------Safety pin and relief hole
>Duration of working------3-4 meter jet length for 20sec
>Contain-------------------Inner shell:Co2 60mg(vary as per weight and capacity)
                                      Outer shell:4.5Kg of DCP powder

     DCP Powder= Sodium Bicarbonate+Magnesium Stearate 

>Body-----------------------Solid drawn steel and internally zinc coated.

Procedure to Use

    >Identify the fire 
    >Carry extinguisher nearby the fire
    >Keep Extinguisher towards the fire
    >Remove the safety pin and strike the plunger to pierce the co2 cartridge
    >Co2 will escape to main shell and push out powder in the form of FOG
    >Extinguish the fire
    >Careful of wind direction


Weekly
Monthly
Yearly
>Check hose outlet and clean
>Check safety pin in position
>Check exterior for crack or any damage and clean it
>Check the label are on place
>Check pressure needle on green zone
>Check internally
>check for chocking of powder
>It must be inverted once in a month to avoid chocking
>Weight of cylinder

>1/3 of total number of extinguishers should punt into operation for evaluation of satisfactory performance 




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